Constantinople or Byzantiun were the sites that were surrounded by a city wall. This peninsula was the center of Roman empire and the world. There has been residence for thousands of years. The main capitol of Roman Empire and early times of Istanbul were the center. So the holy buildings and great masterpieces were built on that area. You can come across the most important buildings of the history in this area such as St.Sophia, the cisterns and the headquarter of Ottoman Empire; Topkapı Palace ( On the Megalo Palacio (Mega Palace)).
East Roman Emperors and Ottoman sultans constructed a mega city in different formats. So a combination of Christian and Islamic cultures formed here. In a wide time period, the city extended to outside of the city wall and modern Istanbul is being constructed..
At present, we can still come across traces of this multi-cultural stage.
Constantinople was the biggest metropolitan cities of the ancient period. There were various nations in Constantinople such as Genoese traders. They had autonomous zone in the city. They were residing and trading in this zone. It was surrounded by a wall.
After the conquest of the city by Ottoman Empire, Genoese zone lost its autonomy and united to Istanbul. By the time, the Genoese walls collapsed and vanished. Only a tower remained from this wall. Galata tower was one of the towers in Genoese wall.
Golden Horn of Istanbul is a river that is subject to all mysterious stories about the city. Actually it was used as inner port in ancient period. Golden Horn is one of the symbols of Istanbul city. During the period of Constantinople and Byzantium, it was used as navy base. Even today we can see some shipyards on the shore of Golden Horn.
Up to its shape, it is called as Golden Horn. In ancient times the water became yellow because of sun rays. So it got the name of Golden Horn. This river has an important role on city legends. For example, it is told that East Roman society or soldiers threw all of the treasure to Golden Horn as Ottomans could never have them. This treasure was so valuable that golden objects and golds were hidden here according to the legend. Constantinople was a well known city in ancient era. East Roman Emperors had a wealthy city. Finally crusaders invaded Constantinople and the capital lost its shine forever.
After the conquest of the city by Ottoman Empire, Ottoman sultans reconstructed the city. It had some various names but finally Istanbul remained. Golden Horn was the attraction center of the city as it is today.Most of the minatures described the beauty of Golden Horn several times.
Till 19th century, Golden Horn had green shores. It was a place where the society could spend time with boats. After the industry came here, it polluted and the life ended here. It is told that it was deeper in the past. By the time, mud covered the bottom the river and formed a thick layer. The legendary treasure can be under this mud layer. Despite those features, it is one of the beautiful places of Istanbul. It is a worthvisiting site and a place where time stopped.
Seagulls are one of the residences of Istanbul. We can consider them as the symbol of the city. Wherever you go on the shore, you can see the seagulls everywhere. Actually they are feeding by fish but due to pollution, fish population got less in recent years. So they become more addictive to human being. For example, you can see many seagulls flying around ferries. Their purpose is to catch bread or simit slices. We share our simits and breads with seagulls.
Seagulls are the natural residences of this city. We can honour them by protecting their environment. And also respect shouldn’t be forgotten.
Istanbul city is located in two continents; Europe and Asia. Its location creates different opprtunities such as marine transportation. You can sail between two continents by a ferry. It is one of the great joys you can find in Istanbul.
We know that marine transportation in Istanbul is dated back to ancient times. Ferries of Istanbul are famous and joyful. I advise you to have a tea (or coffee) with a simit which is a circular bread with susame.
Tourism is a mixture of some branches and culture. Also culture has a diversity inside the subject. Briefly if tourism of a country works well, it means that the management of culture and other branches work very well. Having a tool such as historical background is a gift but the most important thing is to manage them up to the benefit of the country.
Some countries are very lucky for the fundamental of tourism. Turkey is one of them. We have historical background, multi-cultural structure and hospitality. The disadvantage we have is (sometimes) to be lack of management of those tools. Also tourism is one of the top sectors that are affected from international and economical events in the world. We can state that it is a very sensitive sector. The most important tool we have is the reputation of the country. Investing in tourism means to be flexible and open-minded. Any obstacle can interrupt the works of tourism. Tolerance for other cultures and other people is the another key tool of tourism. Especially the religious tourism is one of the top branches in Turkey. Thus belief have a deep diversity in the world. Every culture has good and bad sides. So we should evaluate them in an objective perspective. Natural beauties are the most important tools of a country not only for tourism and also for environment protection. Turkish Republic have all of those tools. Even domestic tourism can be so perfect that our citizens can be an expert of publicity. It requires investment and education. At least we have a great hospitality in our country.
History is a time period which records the events and everything that affects the life. We find out the events and characters from the historical records. That’s why our cultural legacy is very important. According to the records, we had many powerful characters. Roman Emperors are starring. We can list Alexander the Great and Egytpian Queen Cleopatra and more. Isn’t it enough to state those names to show the importance of this landscape?
Turkish landscape offers you more opportunity. Discover Turkey and explore tourism….
There are photographs of water springs on Turkish landscape. Turkish territory can be considered as a wealthy territory for water. Mostly Turkish territory has flowing rivers and proper eco-systems around them. Except South Eastern Region of Turkey, we can come across water springs. South Eastern region has a dry climate and the rain is so a few that long time droughts can be considered as usual there.
The most wealthy region of Turkey (for water and eco-systems) is Black sea region. It is located on the northern side of Turkey. It is almost green and the whole territory is covered with forests. Those forests have various tonnes of green. So the climate is rainy in whole year. Summer season is very short here. Even in summer, you can come across heavy rains. So the water regime is so high that the creeks are avaliable for outdoor sports such as canoe.
As the climates have changed, the rain regime has also changed in the world. Unfortunately this regime has changed in Turkey, too. Not only the global changes and also some factors we cause have serious results on this climate change.
Water has been the basic element for life since the beginning of the life. Human being should have found out how to control the water in order to create huge settlements. We have found out some methods for this purpose. Roman Empire can be considered as the dominant of water. Ancient Greeks and the Small Asia communities had built systems to control water. The scale of those sites isn’t as huge as today but when we compare the past, they were giant projects.
Our ancient sites are almost 2000 years old or older than this period. They have hints on the water engineering. According to our last information provided from archeaological excavations, those sites have water channel systems that are still functioning. Sewage systems are also included in those systems. Even tough, they are older than 2000 years old, they are functioning perfectly at present. Starting from supplying water from the spring (it can be far away from the settlement area), every process is very impressive. The water was used for ordinary life and also for other purposes such as the hot springs and health. We can see traces of those great systems in those sides.
Some of those systems are so developed that even today it isn’t easy to understand how they were calculated and built. The water aquadects were the most important tools that had the principle of gravity. They have adorable engineering.
Briefly ancient period wasn’t a poor period. The proves tell us that they had a very high knowledge level. Even today we still use some principles.
Ancient sites of small Asia have an important feature for archeaology. They light up the hidden part of human being development. Those sites have some answers for necessary part of human being development.
Those sites have different features such as the center of science anf mythology. Most of those sites have important hints for famous myths of ancient era. For example, Troy and Trojan war were considered as fantasy till a tomb raid visited and excavated the region. Whole world knew this legendary war and location from the recods of Homer. The details sounded weird so they were considered as fantasy. A tomb raider ,Schliemann, found some hints on two points. It was Troy and Trojan war existed here. All of the proves show that none of them are fantasy, they are real.
Some of the ancient sites were attraction centers for health tourism. Those sites such as Hierapolis and Aizonai were important sites. They had served elite Roman society. Briefly they had been used for a long time.
Milet ancient site was the center of science and philosophy. The philosophers of Milet were famous in ancient Greek world.
There are many other sites that have reflection in history….
There is an another strait that tie up two continents beside Istanbul strait. It is located in the border of Çanakkale province. It is in the western region of Turkey. It has been hosting many historical events in history for thousands of years.
Last historical event was Gallipoli wars during WW1. Heroic Turkish defence stopped the united allien navy and ANZAC soldiers. This region is a military museum and there are sunken ships under the strait. As we know that Alexander the Great crossed over the Dardanelles for his eastern campaign. Ottomans became an important state by crossing Dardanelles. Even today, it is one of the strategic straits of the world.
A visitor can feel the history while visiting Dardanelles.